Complementation of Buchi automata is an essential technique used in a number of approaches for termination analysis of programs. The long search for an optimal complementation construction climaxed with the work of Schewe, who proposed a worst-case optimal rank-based procedure that generates complements of a size matching the theoretical lower bound of (0.76n)^n, modulo a polynomial factor of O(n^2). Although worst-case optimal, the procedure in many cases produces automata that are unnecessarily large. In this paper, we propose several novel ways of how to use the direct and delayed simulation relations to reduce the size of the automaton obtained in the rank-based complementation procedure. Our techniques are based on either (i) ignoring macrostates that cannot be used for accepting a word in the complement or (ii) saturating macrostates with simulation-smaller states, in order to decrease their total number. We experimentally showed that our techniques can indeed considerably decrease the size of the output of the complementation.
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|Pumping, With or Without Choice|
|Simulations in Rank-Based Buchi Automata Complementation|
|Succinct Determinisation of Counting Automata via Sphere Construction|