Energy Efficiency across Programming Languages: How do Energy, Time, and Memory Relate?
This paper presents a study of the runtime, memory usage and energy consumption of twenty seven well-known software languages. We monitor the performance of such languages using ten different programming problems, expressed in each of the languages. Our results show interesting findings, such as, slower/faster languages consuming less/more energy, and how memory usage influences energy consumption. Finally, we show how to use our results to provide software engineers support to decide which language to use when energy efficiency is a concern.