Model-Based Testing of Networked Applications
We present a rigorous framework for automatically testing application-layer protocols. The key innovation is a domain-specific embedded language for writing nondeterministic models of the behavior of networked servers. These models are defined in Gallina, the language of the Coq interactive theorem prover, supporting a smooth transition from testing to formal verification.
Given a server model, we show how to automatically derive a testing program that probes the server for unexpected behaviors. We address the uncertainties caused by both the server’s internal choices and the network delaying messages nondeterministically. The derived tester accepts server implementations whose possible behaviors are a subset of those allowed by the nondeterministic model.
We demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework by using it to specify and test a fragment of HTTP/1.1, showing that the automatically derived tester can capture RFC violations in buggy server implementations, including the latest versions of Apache and Nginx.