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ICSE 2023
Sun 14 - Sat 20 May 2023 Melbourne, Australia

Developing a software project using multiple languages together has been a dominant practice for years. Yet it remains unclear what issues developers encounter during the development, which challenges cause the issues, and what solutions developers receive. In this paper, we aim to answer these questions via a study on developer discussions on Stack Overflow. By manually analyzing 586 highly relevant posts spanning 14 years, we observed a large variety (11 categories) of issues, dominated by those with interfacing and data handling among different languages. Behind these issues, we found that a major challenge developers faced is the diversity and complexity in multilingual code building and interoperability. Another key challenge lies in developers’ lack of particular technical background on the diverse features of various languages (e.g., threading and memory management mechanisms). Meanwhile, Stack Overflow itself served as a key source of solutions to these challenges—the majority (73%) of the posts received accepted answers eventually, and most in a week (36.5% within 24 hours and 25% in the next 6 days). Based on our findings on these issues, challenges, and solutions, we provide actionable insights and suggestions for both multi-language software researchers and developers.